Critical Care

Milrinone in Renal Failure

Mechanism of Action of Milrinone Milrinone is a selective inhibitor of type III cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterase isoenzyme in cardiac and vascular smooth muscle. Its inhibitory action on phosphodiesterase results in increased cAMP levels, which in turn increases contractility in cardiac muscle and stimulates vasodilatation in blood vessels. This causes an increase in cardiac […]

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Heliox is a mixture of Helium and oxygen being considered for use in asthma patients. Therapeutic strategies for patients with pulmonary medicine often employ bronchodilators or corticosteroids to reduce airway resistance and improve airflow. As an alternative strategy, viscosity and density of the atmosphere manipulated to the same desired effect. Air consists of 21% oxygen, with

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Delayed Hemolytic reactions and Acute Hemolytic reactions

Hemolytic Reactions Hemolytic reactions can be: Acute Hemolytic reactions Delayed Hemolytic reactions: The Delayed Hemolytic reactions are seen after a few days of blood transfusion.   Acute hemolytic reactions It is usually due to ABO incompatibility (mismatch reaction). The most common cause of these transfusion reactions is clerical error. There is intravascular hemolysis. Incidence is

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Complications of Transfusion

The major complications of transfusion of blood are the following: 1. Transfusion Reactions : These reactions may be allergic or haemolytic: Haemolytic Reactions These are again divided in to Delayed Hemolytic reactions and Acute Hemolytic reactions. Allergic Reactions These are usually mild, manifesting as urticaria and are mainly due to plasma proteins. Treatment: Antihistamines (Avil)

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Airway Device

The aim of the airway device is to prevent the tongue fail. The tip of airway gets inserted between tongue and posterior pharyngeal wall and thus prevents the tongue failing back on posterior pharyngeal wall. The various usages of the airway device are: As an alternative to intubation where difficult intubation is anticipated. Securing airway in

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AMBU ventilation

AMBU Ventilation is an important part in resuscitation of an apnoeic person or a person who is not breathing. The AMBU of an AMBU bag is an abbreviation for ‘Artificial Manual Breathing Unit’. The AMBU bag is used to ventilate the patient. An AMBU Ventilation unit consists of one self inflating bag made up of

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Blind Nasal Intubation

Blind nasal intubation is the technique of intubation wherein a nasotracheal tube is passed into the trachea through the nose, without visualization of the glottis with laryngoscope. This is an advanced method that can be carried out only in experienced and skilled hands especially like those of the anesthetists. A blind nasal intubation should always

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