All of these nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs side effects collectively lead to breach of the integrity of gastric mucosal lining, and gastric ulceration is the result.
Following are the nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs side effects :
Gastritis : As an overall decrease in production of prostaglandins takes place. Some of the protective PGs like PGE1, PGE2,and PGI2—(prostacyclin) are also not allowed to be produced; as a result of nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs side effects :
• The gastric mucosal protection is decreased.
• Control of gastric acid secretion is inhibited.
• The local gastric bicarbonate production is decreased.
Interference with haemostasis/coagulation: Drugs like acetyl salicylic acid (Aspirin), interfere with platelet cyclo oxygenase, causing irreversible inhibition of this enzyme leading to prolongation of bleeding time.
Inhibition of prostaglandin mediated renal function:
NSAIDs are well tolerated and do not have much nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs side effects on renal function in normal human beings, but in patients with congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrhosis, chronic renal diseases, or in hypovolaemia, acute renal failure may be precipitated by use of NSAIDs.
In such situations, the renal perfusion is more dependent upon the prostaglandins. Thus, this precipitates renal tubular compromise due to vasoconstrictive action of catecholamines and angiotensin H.
Nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs side effects also interfere in reabsorption phenomena in tubules leading to excessive reabsorption of potassium leading to hyperkalaemia. The papillary necrosis and chronic interstitial nephritis are also reported.
Idiosyncratic and hypersens itivily reaction: Aspirin and other drugs are known to cause allergic/idiosyncratic reactions in certain sensitive individuals; ranging from milder symptoms like rhinorrhoea, angioneurotic oedema, itching to laryngeal oedemalbronchoconstriction. Hypotension and shock are more common in middle-aged patients.
Many other nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs side effects in the form of idiosyncratic reactions are as follows: Aseptic meningitis, blurring of vision —more common with ibuprofen, indomethacin, etc.