What is minute ventilation?
Sevoflurane

Magnesium on Brain

The neuroprotective effects of Magnesium on Brain have been reported in experimental models of traumatic brain injury, cerebral ischaemia and acute subarachnoid haemorrhage. Magnesium on Brain reduces infarct volume in various animal models of embolic stroke. The mechanisms by which Continue reading

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IV Fluid Replacement in neurosurgical patients

Little substantial human data exists concerning the impact of fluids on the brain, which may guide rational IV Fluid Replacement in neurosurgical patients. Therefore, recommendations arise from known factors that influence water movement into the brain. IV Fluid Replacement in Continue reading

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Hypertonic Saline Infusion

Although mannitol remains the mainstay of hyperosmolar therapy, Hypertonic Saline Infusion is an alternative to mannitol. The main theoretical justification for using Hypertonic Saline Infusion stems from the fact that an intact BBB is less permeable to saline than to Continue reading

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Effects of Nitrous oxide in neuroanaesthesia

The Effects of Nitrous oxide in neuroanaesthesia has been questioned many times due to its detrimental effects on the cerebral vasculature and the brain tissue. However, there are no large-scale outcome studies to approve or disapprove its continued use in Continue reading

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Cranial Perfusion Pressure

The focus in Rosner’s Cranial Perfusion Pressure management strategy is on the cerebral perfusion pressure and cerebral blood flow with the presumption of an intact pressure autoregulation. Low Cranial Perfusion Pressure stimulates cerebral vasodilatation as a part of cerebral blood Continue reading

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Cerebral vasospasm treatment

The principal options for Cerebral vasospasm treatment and treating delayed cerebral ischaemia are haemodynamic augmentation and endovascular therapy. Alternative therapies include intra-aortic counter pulsation (IABC), therapeutic hypothermia dedicated Cerebral vasospasm treatment and barbiturate coma. The concept of haemodynamic augmentation – Continue reading

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Cerebral protection

Cerebral ischaemia or hypoxia may occur as a consequence of shock, vascular stenosis or occlusion, vasospasm, neurotrauma and cardiac arrest. Strategies to protect the brain i.e Cerebral protection from ischemic/hypoxic insults are based on the understanding of pathophysiological processes that Continue reading

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CEA Anesthesia

CEA Anesthesia or Carotid endarterectomy anesthesia can be general or regional or combined. Here is a discussion on the relative advantages and disadvantageous of the different types. Mc CaI Thyet al conducted a prospective, randomized trial investigating patient experience of Continue reading

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Brain Hypothermia

The capacity of deliberate Brain Hypothermia to protect the brain and other vital organs during periods of decreased oxygen delivery is used during cardiac surgery. The beneficial effects of Brain Hypothermia were empirically attributed to its ability to decrease cellular Continue reading

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Blood Brain Barrier Functions

In normal Blood Brain Barrier functions the effective pore size of cerebral capillaries is 7-9 A°. This small pore size does not allow movement of small ions, i.e, Na, K and C1. Therefore, the fluid movement across the Blood Brain Continue reading

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