Some of the Phenobarbital side effects are discussed. Intra-arterial injection of thiopental usually results in immediate, intense vasoconstriction and severe pain radiates along the distribution of the vessel into which it has been administered.
Vasoconstriction may obscure distal arterial pulses, and blanching of the extremity is followed by cyanosis. In awake patients, hypoaesthesia, muscular weakness, paralysis, and anesthesia may occur. Severe cases are associated with profound edema and, ultimately, gangrene.
One of the phenobarbital side effects is that the permanent nerve damage may occur. Also the phenobarbital side effects include that It is generally accepted that the risk of initiating vascular damage with intraarterial thiopental increases with increasing concentrations of the drug, and the use of a 2.5% solution is relatively safe.
The vascular damage is not due to the alkalinity of the solution. Administration of phenobarbital side effects and removes arterial endothelial cells, which may lead to thrombus formation.
However, vascular smooth muscle function is essentially unaltered. Treatment of accidental intra-arterial injection of phenobarbital side effects includes
- Elevation of the involved hand,
- Leaving the cannula in situ,
- Immediate attempts to dilute the drug by injecting normal saline,
- Prevention of arterial spasm by injecting Vasodilators like papaverine, phenoxybenzamine,
- Injecting 2% lignocaine,
- And general measures to sustain adequate blood flow.
Arterial vasodilator tolazoline, thromboxane inhibitors such as iloprost, aspirin, methylprednisolone, high-molecular-weight dextrans have all been tried. Direct injection of heparin into the artery may also be considered. Sympathectomy of the upper extremity produced by a stellate ganglion block or brachial plexus block may relieve vasoconstriction.