Colloids are the type on intravenous fluids with high osmolarity that are ideal to transfuse in conditions like decreased intravascular volume. A Few Colloids Examples are:
- Dextrans (Lomodex)
- Gelatins (Haemaccel)
- Hydroxyethyl Starch
- Perflurocarbon Emulsions
The Colloids Examples are explained in a bit detail below.
- 1. Dextrans (Lomodex)
For more on Dextrans read
- 2. Albumins
Available as 5% and 25% solution.
These are very expensive.
Albumin has an intravascular half life of 10-15 days.
Used when there is protein loss from body like in:
- Liver failure.
- Protein losing enteropathies.
- 3. Gelatins (Haemaccel)
Colloids Examples that is most commonly used are the gelatins. They have a Molecular weight of 30,000. They are available as 3.5% solution.
Composition of Haemaccel: Each liter contains:
- Gelatin : 35g
- Sodium : 145 mEq
- Chloride : 145 mEq
- Potassium : 5 mEq
- Calcium : 12 mEq
Expand plasma effectively for 2 hours (25% may be present in blood after 12 hours).
At clinically used doses these do not interfere with blood grouping, platelet function & clotting but at high doses they can also interfere with clotting. Incidence of severe anaphylactic reactions is very less.
As haemaccel contains high calcium therefore citrated blood should not be mixed.
- 4. Hydroxyethyl Starch
These are newer Colloids Examples. Two kind of hydroxyethyl starches are available – Hexastarch and Pentastarch.
Available as 6% and 10% solution. They have prolonged half life and expand plasma effectively for 4 hours.
These solutions improve microcirculation and hence improve oxygen delivery to tissues.
- 5. Perflurocarbon Emulsions
(See section of substitute blood).
- 6. Blood
Although at clinically used doses they does not interfere with clotting but at high doses (>20m1/kg) they also interfere with clotting. Allergic reactions are less common Allergic reactions and interference with clotting are almost same Pentastarch with as compared with Hexastarch.
- 7. HEXTEND
This is another among the new Colloids Examples. Hextend is another hydroxyethyl starch which also has glucose & lactate but it is under trials and is considered to effect coagulation less than hydroethyl starch.
These Colloids Examples are the most commonly used in clinical practice.