Clonidine is an alpha-2 receptor agonist that down regulates the sympathetic nervous system. By stimulating alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the brain stem, clonidine activates inhibitory pathways in the central nervous system (CNS), which results in reduced catecholamine release and reduced sympathetic outflow from the CNS. This effectively causes a decrease in blood pressure, heart rate, […]

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Pain control is an important aspect of critical care medicine and the use of opiate medications has typically been an important method of achieving control in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. The brain has four opiate receptors that include the mu, kappa, delta, and sigma receptors. Currently used opioid analgesics bind to the mu

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