Category Archives: General Anesthesia

Anesthesia for Carotid Endarterectomy

Anesthesia for Carotid Endarterectomy is of proven benefit to reduce the risk of stroke in patients with high-grade stenosis of the internal carotid artery. Since the disease is atherosclerotic in origin, these patients often are prone to a variety of Continue reading

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Excess Oxygen

Excess Oxygen can cause pulmonary oxygen toxicity which results in a lot of damage to the body tissues. To summarize briefly, the excess oxygen can cause, pulmonary toxicity, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, rertolental fibroplasia, convulsions and Paul burt effect. Here we will be dicussing the Continue reading

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Low alveolar ventilation

A lot of anesthetic gases can be dangerous when used in a low alveolar ventilation anesthesia. This is because the anesthetic gases can combine with soda lime or other components of the boyles machine and produce poisonous gases. This is constant in a non-rebreathing system. In Continue reading

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Wong baker pain assessment tool

Wong baker pain assessment tool is used in the patients who do not have appropriate cognitive level to use a number scale, like lay persons or children. The patient then points out to face best represents how he/she is feeling Continue reading

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Ethyl Chloride Anesthesia

  Ethyl Chloride Anesthesia is a potent anaesthetic. If it has a bp of 12.5°C and hence is a gas at room temperature, so it is liquefied and stored under pressure in a bottle with a cap and seal. It Continue reading

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Trilene anesthesia

  Trilene anesthesia is a non-flammable, good analgesic-and cheap agent. Physical properties of trilene anesthesia : It has bp 80°C, VP 60 mm Hg, oil/gas coefficient 600 and blood/gas 12, metabolism 40%, unstable, preservative 1:10,000 thymol as stabilizer and coloured Continue reading

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Methoxyflurane Anesthesia

  Methoxyflurane Anesthesia is a halogenated hydrocarbon now obsolete. Physical properties: Colourless, fruity liquid, non-flammable, bp104°C, blood/gas coefficient 13, oil /gas 825, VP 25 mm Hg, MAC 0.2%, metabolism 50-75%. Methoxyflurane Anesthesia is metabolized to dichloroacetic acid and methoxydifluoro acetic Continue reading

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Enflurane metabolism

  Enflurane metabolism is briefly discussed. About 80-90% of enflurane is eliminated in expired air, up to 5% is metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 (2E1) to difluoromethoxy difluoroacetic acid and free fluoride. Carbon monoxide may be produced in the presence Continue reading

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Enflurane side effects

Some of the Enflurane side effects are studied below. There is a narrow margin of safety between adequate anaesthesia, unacceptable hypotension and myocardial depression. One of the enflurane side effects includes the seizure activity is rare and without sequelae. Hepatic Continue reading

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Sevoflurane respiratory effects

Some of the Sevoflurane respiratory effects include that there is no irritation to the airway, least among inhalation agents, this makes it suitable for inhalational induction, the low blood/gas solubility aids faster induction. Sevoflurane respiratory effects include  respiratory depression, reduces Continue reading

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